Sweet Maria's Coffee Glossary

All Terms:
(A-C), (D-L), (M-S), (T-Z)

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Abyssinia
Ethiopia was formerly known as Abyssinia, or this term may refer a coffee cultivar. Abyssinia is also a cultivar brought to Java in 1928 (not the original Typica brought from Yemen to Batavia, Java via India). Since then, they have been brought to Aceh as well. Another group of Ethiopian varieties found in Sumatra are called USDA, after an American project that brought them to Indonesia in the 1950s.
Related Terms:
Ateng Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Arabica Catuai USDA Varietal Rambung Bergendal Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Acaia
Acaia is planted mainly in Brazil. The Acaiá genotype was derived by selection from progenies of the Mundo Novo germplasm, which arose from natural hybridization between Sumatra and Bourbon cultivars. ("Sumatra" is in the former ICO collections, but if it is a older Typica or a hybrid is unknown)
Related Terms:
Mundo Novo Varietal Cultivar Bourbon
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Agtron
Agtron spectrophotometers are used in the coffee industry and also in other lab applications for color matching, color analysis, sorting, and other scientific measurements.
Related Terms:
Spectrophotometer Color Analysis
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Arabica
Arabica refers to Coffea Arabica, the taxonomic species name of the genus responsible for around 75% of the world's commercial coffee crop. Coffea Arabica is a woody perennial evergreen that belongs to the Rubiaceae family (same family as Gardenia). The other major commercial crop is Coffea Canephora, known as Robusta coffee. Arabica and Robusta differ in terms of genetics and taste. While Robusta coffee beans are more disease-resistant than the Arabica, they generally produce an inferior tasting beverage and has more caffeine. Coffea arabica is a tetraploid (44 chromosomes) and is self-pollinating, whereas Robusta is diploid with 22 chromosomes. There are 2 main botanical cultivars of Arabica: C. Arabica Var. Arabica (Typica) and C. Arabica Var. Bourbon. Arabica was used originally to indicate Arab origins because coffee was taken from Yemen to the Dutch colony Batavia on the island of Java (via India), although C. Arabica originates in the Western Ethiopian region of Kaffa. The taxonomy for Arabica coffee is:
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Asteridae
Order Rubiales
Family Rubiaceae – Madder family
Genus Coffea L. – coffee
Species Coffea arabica L. – Arabian coffee
Related Terms:
Caturra Catuai Bourbon Typica Origin Flavor Cultivar Varietal Catimor Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Arabigo
Arabigo is a term seen in Latin America and refers to Typica cultivar
Related Terms:
Typica Bourbon Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Arabusta
An interspecific hybrid of coffea arabica and coffea canephora (robusta). This has been used widely in Africa to create coffee plants that do well in lowland areas, especially West Africa. It is not known for cup quality.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Arusha
The name of a cultivar from Tanzania, as well as a general trade name for Tanzania coffees from Mount Meru area
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


Ateng
Ateng, with several sub types, is a common name for Catimor coffees widely planted in Sumatra and other Indonesia isles. One will hear of Ateng Jaluk. This cross between Arabica and Robusta has a reputation for poor flavor. However, there are numerous types of Catimor and in some conditions they can do well in the cup. Ateng name derives from the area Aceh Tenggah
Related Terms:
Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica Villa Sarchi Hibrido De Timor Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Bergendal
Bergendal is found less and less frequently in Aceh, Sumatra. It is a low-producing plant of Typica origins. Much of the Typica was lost in the late 1880s, when Coffee Leaf Rust swept through Indonesia. However, both the Bergendal and Sidikalang varieties of Typica can still be found in More remote areas. It is possible the name derives from Berg und Tal, " hill and valley."
Related Terms:
Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Sidikalang Cultivar Ateng Timtim
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Blue Mountain Cultivar
A C. Arabica Var. Typica coffee that shares other features of Typica plants, but also shows some resistance to CBD: Coffee Berry Disease. It is said to be grown in Papua New Guinea but pure lots have not been found, and we buy a small lot of this cultivar from a plot in Kona, Hawaii each year.
Related Terms:
Robusta Arabica Maragogype Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Bourbon
Bourbon, along with Typica, are main Coffea Arabica cultivars. Bourbon was developed by the French on the island of Bourbon, now Reunion, in the India Ocean near Africa. The seeds were sold to the French by the British East India Company from Aden, Yemen, and were planted in 1708. After generations, it began to express unique characteristics and became more robust. Bourbon has slightly higher yields and is more robust than Typica in general. It has a broader leaf and rounder cherry (and green bean) than Typica, a conical tree form, and erect branches. It has many local variants and sub-types, including Tekisic, Jackson, Arusha, and the Kenya SL types. In general, Bourbon can have excellent cup character. The cherry ripens quickly, but is at risk from wind and hard rain. It is susceptible to major coffee diseases. Bourbon grows best at altitudes between 1100 - 2000 MASL. Bourbon coffees should have green tips (new leaves) whereas Typicas should have bronze-to-copper tips.
Related Terms:
Bourbon Mayaguez Robusta Arabica Maragogype Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Bourbon Mayaguez
A Bourbon cultivar variant from Rwanda and Burundi, from the early part of the 20th century. Bourbon coffees are named for the island in the India Ocean where French colonists grew it.
Related Terms:
Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Arusha Jackson Varietal Cultivar Flavor
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Catimor
Catimor is a broad group of cultivars derived from HdT (Hibrido de Timor) and Caturra cross, highly productive, sometimes with inferior cup flavor. The main issue is the Robusta content in HdT, although this has given Catimor types some resistance to Coffee Berry Disease, and Rust (CLR), and in some cases to Nematodes. One issue is that Catimor is over-bearing, requires much fertilizer input, and might "wear itself out" in a short time span (5-10 years). The first research in this cross was at CIFC in Portugal in the late '60s, tested in Angola and Brazil. It was introduced in the 1980s in multiple places, one of the first being the Variedad Colombia released in 1985. Based on Brazilian and Portuguese types, IHCAFE 90 and IHCAFE 95 (Costa Rica 95) were widely planted. Honduras has Lempira, El Salvador has Catisic, Nicaragua has Catrenic. Cauvery was developed in India from plant material direct from Portugal. Indonesia is widely planted in Catimor types, such as Ateng, the main benefit being this resistance to Coffee Leaf Rust.
Related Terms:
Maragogype Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Arabica Robusta Maracatu
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Catuai
Catuai is a high-yield Arabica cultivar resulting from a cross of Mundo Novo and Caturra. The tree is short, with lateral branches forming close angles to the primary branches. It is robust and can tolerate areas with strong winds or rain. Catuai requires fertilization and care. It was developed by the Instituto Agronomico do Campinas in Brazil in the '50s and '60s, and is widely used in Brazil and Central America. There are yellow-fruited and red-fruited types, and many selections. In 2000, a new type called Ouro Verde was released with more vigor than Red Catuai.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Caturra
Caturra is an Arabica cultivar discovered as a natural mutant of Bourbon in Brazil in 1937. It has a good yield potential, but was not ideal for Brazil growing conditions (due to lack of hardness and too much fruit in 3-4 production cycles). However, it flourished in Colombia and Central America and had good cup characteristics, possibly displaying citrus qualities. At higher altitudes quality increases, but production decreases, and it sometimes requires extensive care and fertilization. It has a good cup quality, and perhaps shows a more citric acidity, and lighter body than Bourbon.
Related Terms:
Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Gesha Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


CBB
Coffee Berry Borer is a pest that burrows into the coffee seed, and a major problem in many coffee origins. In Latin America it is known as Broca
Related Terms:
Coffee Diseases Coffee Leaf Rust Nematodes
Categories:
Origins Biology/Cultivars Defects


Charrieriana
This is a new caffeine-free coffee from Cameroon, the first record of a caffeine-free species from Central Africa. Cameroon is a center of diversity for the genus Coffea and such wild species are potentially important in breeding programs. In this case the new species could be used for breeding of naturally decaffeinated beans. Type Locality: Bakossi Forest Reserve, Tombel Division, Southwest Province, Cameroon. Etymology: "The name is in honour of a Professor A. Charrier, who managed coffee breeding research and collecting missions at IRD during the last 30 years of the 20th century."
Related Terms:
Caturra Typica Robusta Arabica Cultivar Bourbon
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Coffee Berry Disease
A fungal disease that results in cherry dying and dropping to the ground before it is ripe. It is a serious problem in Kenya, and most of East Africa, and can be transmitted by the coffee seed.
Related Terms:
Coffee Berry Borer Coffee Leaf Rust
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


Cultivar
The naming of a cultivar should conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (the ICNCP, commonly known as the Cultivated Plant Code). A cultivar is a particular variety of a plant species or hybrid that is being cultivated and/or is recognised as a cultivar under the ICNCP. The concept of cultivar is driven by pragmatism, and serves the practical needs of horticulture, agriculture, forestry, etc. The plant chosen as a cultivar may have been bred deliberately, selected from plants in cultivation. This is the term we prefer to Varietal in terms of coffee, since it implies the intentional cultivation for organoleptic and production results.
Related Terms:
Caturra Typica Bourbon Origin Flavor Varietal Cultivar Flavor Catuai Catimor Organoleptic
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


Excelsa
Coffea Excelsa is a distinct Species in the Genus Coffea, and has Robusta-like form. It can be confused with Robusta and Liberica because of it's form, and robusta-like cup. Not to be confused with the Colombian coffee grade Excelso, which is unrelated. The correct scientific name is Coffea Dewertii.
Related Terms:
Caturra Typica Bourbon Origin Flavor Varietal Cultivar Catuai Catimor
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


French Mission Bourbon
French Missionaries brought the original coffee to East Africa, from Reunion island to Tanzania, then Kenya. There are still areas with original Bourbon rather than the SL varieties. This Bourbon appears to have Mokka inputs as well, since coffee was brought directly from Aden, Yemen to northern Tanzania (Tanganyika) by French fathers, and the two naturally mutated into what was called French Mission coffee.
Related Terms:
SL-28 Bourbon Origin Flavor Varietal Cultivar Flavor Scott Laboratories SL-34
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Garungan
Garungan is a coffee variety I encountered in the Lintong area of Sumatra. It has the form of a Typica, but the new leaf is green, not bronze. It has upright branch structure like Bourbon, and long narrow leaves like Typica
Related Terms:
Abyssinia Ateng Typica Cultivar Varietal Lasuna Rambung Bergendal
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Gesha
Gesha (often wishfully misspelled as Geisha) is a long-bean Ethiopia cultivar selection with unique cup character. It is most famously grown on the Jaramillo plot at Hacienda Esmeralda in Panama by the Peterson family. It has now been broadly planted in other Central America countries and beyond to capitalize on the high price it has fetched. It was distributed from the garden at CATIE in Costa Rica, and displayed some rust-resistant properties. Gesha is a town in Western Ethiopia.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Hibrido
Hibrido means "Hybrid" in latin languages, and in Central America is used to mean Bourbon cultivar.
Related Terms:
Typica Bourbon Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Hibrido De Timor
Hibrido de Timor is a cross between Robusta and Timor Arabica, abbreviated HdT. It was a source plant for Catimor cultivar, and has excellent resistance to the widespread fungal problem, Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR). In Indonesia it is sometimes called TimTim. It was first collected in East Timor in 1978 planted in Aceh in 1979, and in Flores 1980 where the variety is called Churia.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Icatu
Icatu is a cultivar that was developed in Brazil, has high production and good disease resistance. It has robusta inputs, and has been back-crossed with arabica cultivars to improve cup quality. It has 30-50% more cherry than Mundo Novo, a tall tree form, and red- and yellow- fruited progenies. It was released in 1993 by the IAC in Campinas Brazil. "The variety Icatu was obtained after artificial crossing between C. canephora var robusta (4x) and C. arabica var Bourbon Vermelho. The F1 was crossed with Mundo Novo and selected for precocity giving rise to Icatu precoce IAC 3282. The predominance of genes from Bourbon Vermelho in both, Caturra Vermelho IAC 477 and Icatu Precoce IAC 3282 gave support to the high genetic similarities observed."
Related Terms:
Robusta Arabica Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Acaia
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Jackson
A Bourbon cultivar variant from Rwanda and Burundi. Bourbon coffees are named for the island in the India Ocean where French colonists grew it.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Arusha Jackson
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Jacu
Bird indigenous to Brazil. On some Specialty Coffee farms, the cherries/coffee seeds digested by the Jacu are collected for a special "Jacu"-grade Specialty Coffee preparation. It is believed that the Jacu only feast on a certain ripeness of coffee cherry, thus the demand for and separation of these coffee beans for export.
Related Terms:
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars Sweet Maria's Terms


Java Cultivar
Java Cultivar is planted widely in Cameroon, related to Abyssinia found in East Java. It is distinct from Java Typica types, such as Bergendal, Pasumah or BLP, and from Jamaique Typica in Cameroon as well. It has resistance to CBD and due to it's vigor can recover from CLR. The fruit and seed are elongated and the tips are bronze-colored.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor CBD CLR
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


JBM
JBM is short for Jamaica Blue Mountain, which is both a trade name for certain Jamaica coffee, and a Typica cultivar. As a cultivar, it is one of the older New World Typica types since the Typica was circulated around the Carribean isles long before it was planted in the mainland of Central America. Not all Jamaica-grown coffee is necessarily JBM cultivar. As a trade name, it supposedly signifies the higher grown coffee from Jamaica, as opposed to Jamaica High Mountain, which is lower grown (!). There is no blue shade to the coffee or the mountain, or a specific geographical designation it indicates.
Related Terms:
Jamaica
Categories:
Origins Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


Jember
Jember is a cultivar in Indonesia. Also a town in East Java, home of the main coffee and cocoa research institute, ICCRI. Jember is also called S-795 and originates in India.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Ateng Bergendal Timtim
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Kent
Kent was the first useful CLR resistant cultivar; it was developed on the Kent estate in Mysore, India. Kent was widely planted but eventually was destroyed by a new wave of CLR; Coffee Leaf Rust fungus
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Arusha Jackson
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Kona Typica
Kona is a special cultivar, Kona Typica, a traditional varietal that cannot be grown at low elevations.
Related Terms:
Typica
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Lasuna
Lasuna is a coffee variety I have encountered in Sumatra, which appears to have Typica aspects in the plant form and it's bronze colored new leaf. But I am told it is not a pure Typica
Related Terms:
Abyssinia Ateng Typica Cultivar Varietal
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Laurina
Laurina or "Bourbon Pointu" is a cultivar with low caffeine content, at .6% compared to 1-1.2% for many Arabica types, and 2.2% for some Robusta types. It is a dwarf form from Reunion island, and is highly susceptible to CLR disease.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Liberica
Coffea Liberica is a distinct Species in the Genus Coffea originating in Liberia, West Africa. It is a tree-like form, with mild cup that is more similar to Robusta in terms of the plant and the cup quality, than to Arabica. The branches and leaves have an inclined attitude in relation to the trunk, the seeds are large and skin tough. It is found in Indonesia and other parts of Asia. A varietal of Liberica, known as Baraco, is a major crop in the Philippines.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Arabica Robusta Liberica Excelsa Coffea Canephora
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Maracatu
As the name indicates cross between large-bean Maragogype and Catuai cultivars. It has a larger than average bean and interesting cup flavors, similar to Pacamara.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Robusta Maracatu
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Maracaturra
As the name indicates cross between large-bean Maragogype and Caturra cultivars. It seems to be found most in Nicaragua, although I am not sure exactly why. It can be grown elsewhere, certainly. It has a larger than average bean and interesting cup flavors, similar to Pacamara.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Caturra Maragogype Bourbon Catuai Maracatu
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Maragogype
Maragogype is a mutation of Typica coffee and was discovered in Brazil. The Maragogype is a large plant with big leaves, low production and very large fruits (and seeds / green beans). It has been called the "Elephant Bean coffee." Maragogype adapts best between 2,000-2,500 feet. The mild cup characteristics and bean size were historically sought-after in Europe. Roasting can be difficult (not to mention feeding it into grinder burrs!), but sometimes Maragos can be fantastic. It benefits from gentle warm-up in the roaster, and long, gentle roast times temperature profiles.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Robusta Maracatu
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Mibirizi
A Bourbon cultivar variant from Rwanda and Burundi. Bourbon coffees are named for the island in the India Ocean where French colonists grew it.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Arusha Jackson
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Mokha
Mokha Yemeni type of coffee, both in terms of the family of cultivars planted there, and the general trade name. The alternate spellings are Mocca, Moka, Mocha. The name refers to the former coffee port on the Red Sea called Al Mahka, and all the spellings are derived from a phonetic interpretation of the Arabic pronunciation for this town. It is no longer a coffee port, and most Yemeni coffee ships from Hodeidah, also on the Red Sea. In terms of cultivar, all types of Mokha coffee are proved to come from Harar, Ethiopia or other areas on the Eastern side of the Rift Valley. Yemeni Mokha coffee is the first commercially planted "farms" (the coffee is grown on stone walled terraces) and the souce for what would become Typica and Bourbon cultivars. So all coffee comes from West Ethiopia and the Boma plateau of Sudan, then to Eastern Ethiopia and Harar via the slave trade route, then to Yemen, then to the rest of the world. Moka is an established cultivar as well, found in many ICO coffee research gardens and grown in some locales (such as Maui, Hawaii).
Related Terms:
Yemen Ethiopia Bourbon Typica Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


Mucilage
Indicating the fruity layer of the coffee cherry, between the outer skin and the parchment layer that surrounds the seed.
Related Terms:
Coffee Cherry Demucilage
Categories:
Processing Biology/Cultivars


Mundo Novo
Mundo Novo is a commercial coffee cultivar; a natural hybrid between "Sumatra" and Bourbon, originally grown in Brazil. In my experience, when some farmers and brokers refer to "Brazilian Bourbon coffees", they might mean Mundo Novo. It has a rounded seed form. The plant is strong and resistant to disease. Mundo Novo has a high production, but matures slightly later than other kinds of coffee. It does well between 1000-1200 MASL, which suits Brazil coffee altitudes, with an annual rainfall of 1,200-1,800 mm.
Related Terms:
Maragogype Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Nematodes
Nematodes are a diverse phylum, but in terms of coffee agriculture, there are both beneficial and negative-acting nematodes. Depending on the species, a nematode may be beneficial or detrimental to plant health. From an agricultural perspective, there are two categories of nematode: predatory ones, which will kill garden pests like cutworms, and pest nematodes, like the root-knot nematode, which attack plants. Predatory nematodes can be bred by soaking a specific recipe of leaves and other detritus in water, in a dark, cool place, and can even be purchased as an organic form of pest control. Rotations of plants with nematode resistant species or varieties is one means of managing parasitic nematode infestations. For example, marigolds, grown over one or more seasons (the effective is cumulative), can be used to control nematodes.[11] Another is treatment with natural antagonists such as the fungus gliocladium roseum.
Related Terms:
Coffee Diseases CLR CBB
Categories:
Origins Biology/Cultivars


Onan Ganjang
Onan Ganjang is a locality in North Sumatra within the greater "Lintong" or Tapanuli growing area. It is also used as the name of a local cultivar from the area Onan Ganjang. The coffee has unique characteristics but the original heredity of the plant is not known. It is a pure arabica (not Catimor or Hibrido de Timor/Robusta in origin) and has some Bourbon and Typica-like features.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Orange Bourbon
A variation of Bourbon that ripens to an orange color. While the cup quality is excellent, the added challenge to harvest ripe cherries is daunting. (With red bourbon, determining ripe color is easier for the pickers). Found mainly in El Salvador. See Bourbon for the full definition.
Related Terms:
Bourbon Yellow Bourbon Pink Bourbon
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Pacamara
As the name implies, Pacamara is a large bean cultivar, a cross between Pacas and Maragogype with unique flavor properties. This variant originated in El Salvador in 1958, and has spread to nearby Central American countries, but is still chiefly grown in El Salvador. It has unique flavors that range from chocolate and fruit, to herbal or, in the worse coffees, vegetal (green onion specifically).
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica Robusta Maracatu
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Pacas
Pacas is a natural mutation of Bourbon cultivar that appeared in El Savador in 1949. It has good cup character, and is an input into Pacamara cultivar as well. Caturra and Villa Sarchi are also natural dwarf Bourbon mutations. In the cup, I find it similar to Bourbon in many ways, and the shrub is more wind-resistant than Bourbon.
Related Terms:
Arabica Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Robusta Maracatu
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Pache
Pache is a dwarf mutation of Typica coffee first observed at Finca El Brito, Guatemala. It is also called Pache Comun. A varitety called Pache Colis is a cross of Caturra and Pache Comun, and is extremely short in form.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Peaberry
Coffee is the dried seed from the fruit of a flowering tree - each fruit having 2 seeds facing each other (the flat side of the coffee "bean") or in the case of the peaberry, a single rounded seed. On the coffee tree, there is usually a percentage of fruit that has one seed within, ie a peaberry, and many more that are "flat beans" with the usual 2 seeds per fruit.
Related Terms:
Caracol
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Pink Bourbon
A rare variation of Bourbon that ripens to a pink color. It is called Bourbon Roseado in some latin countries. The cup is purported to be fantastic, but finding stable plants that will consistently produce the pink fruit is difficult. The added challenge to harvest ripe cherries is daunting. (With red bourbon, determining ripe color is easier for the pickers). See Bourbon for the full definition.
Related Terms:
Bourbon Yellow Bourbon Pink Bourbon
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Purpurascens
Purpurascens is a purple-leaf coffee mutant of limited value (production and cup quality-wise), but is maintained for genetic reasons.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Arusha Jackson Semperflorens
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Rambung
An Ethiopia cultivar brought to Java in 1928, along with a type called Abyssinia
Related Terms:
Sidikalang Catimor Catuai Caturra Typica Bourbon Varietal Cultivar Bergendal Ateng
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Robusta
Robusta usually refers to Coffea Robusta, responsible for roughly 25% of the world's commercial coffee. Taxonomy of Robusta is debated: some sources use “Robusta” to refer to any variety of Coffea Canephora, and some use "Robusta” as a species name. Caffeine content of Robusta beans is about twice that of Arabica. Robusta can be used in espresso blending to increase body and crema content.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Arabica
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Ruiru 11
Ruiru 11 is named for the station at Ruiru, Kenya where it was developed in the '70s and released in 1986. The initial test were with Hibrido de Timor (a cross between Arabica and Robusta, resistant to Coffee Leaf Rust) and Rume Sudan, an original coffee strain resistant to CBD, Coffee Berry Disease. Later they added SL-28 and SL-34 imputs due to poor cup character of the early tests. The Robusta content of Ruiru 11 is still an issue, and the cup does not match the quality of the SL types
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon SL-28 Scott Laboratories French Mission Cultivar
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Rust Fungus
Rust Fungus is a big problem in Colombia, but is found in many coffee producing countries. Known as La Roya in the Americas, this disease diminishes fruit production and ultimately kills the plant. Combating the disease with selectively-applied fungicides, especially in seasons with heavy rains, is key to saving the coffee plants.
Related Terms:
Defects Origin
Categories:
Chemistry Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


S-Line
S-line coffees include the heavily planted S795 and the earlier S288, which have good rust (CLR) fungus resistance. In Indonesia they are planted widely as well, and called Linie S, found in Lintong, Aceh, Flores, Sulawesi, Papua, Bali and Java.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Arabica Bergendal Rambung USDA Ateng S795
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


S.288
Selection 288, a coffee leaf rust (CLR) resistant strain of arabica released by the Coffee Board of India in 1937
Related Terms:
S.795 CLR Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica Robusta Ateng Bergendal
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


S795
S795 is a hardy variety developed in India, and stands for Selection 795, a cross of S288 and the older Kent variety. It has strong CLR Rust fungus resistance, and is widely planted in India. S-line coffees are also in Indonesia.
Related Terms:
Maragogype Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Arabica Robusta Ateng Bergendal
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Sarchimor
Sarchimor is a disease-resitant Catimor-relative, crossed between Villa Sarchi and Hibrido de Timor
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Typica Bourbon Caturra Catimor Catuai Mundo Novo Pacamara Gesha Maragogype Arabica Villa Sarchi Hibrido De Timor
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Semperflorens
Semperflorens is a mutant cultivar with Bourbon genetic background, named for the fact it flowers year round (is resistant to photoperiodism). It was found in Brazil in 1934.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Ateng Purpurascens Semperflorens
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Sidikalang
Sidikalang is found less and less frequently in Sumatra and other parts of Indonesia. Much of the Typica was lost in the late 1880s, when Coffee Leaf Rust swept through Indonesia. However, both the Bergendal and Sidikalang varieties of Typica can still be found in Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Flores, especially at higher altitudes and in remote areas.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Bergendal
Categories:
Origins Biology/Cultivars


SL-28
Scot Labs selection 28 Kenya cultivar, a preferred type with Bourbon and Mokka heritage. It supposedly is selected from Tanganyika DR cultivar, found by A.D. Trench on a trip through Tanzania, and has similar drought resistant properties. DR is of French Mission Bourbon origin. Many prefer SL-28 to the other successful, sidely used cultivar, SL-34.
Related Terms:
SL-34 Bourbon Origin Flavor Varietal Cultivar Flavor Scott Laboratories
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


SL-34
Scott Labs selection 34 Kenya cultivar, a preferred type with French Mission Bourbon heritage. It supposedly is selected from French Mission Bourbon trees at Loresho Estate in Kabete Kenya. SL types are responsible for 90% of Kenya coffees. SL_34 has better yields than SL-28, and is grown at lower altitudes than SL-28
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon SL-28 Scott Laboratories
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Stenophylla
Coffea Stenophylla is a distinct Species in the Genus Coffea originating in West Africa, endemic to foothill elevations in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast, and taken into Ghana and Nigeria. It is slow to mature and has mild to poor cup character. It has unique purple fruit when ripe.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Varietal Arabica Robusta Liberica Excelsa Coffea Canephora
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Tekisic
Tekisic is a Bourbon cultivar variant still grown in El Salvador. Bourbon coffees are named for the island in the India Ocean where French colonists grew it.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Yellow Bourbon Arusha Jackson
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Typica
Typica is one of the main cultivars of Coffea Arabica, and one from which many other commercial types have been derived. It has a longer seed form than the other main cultivar, Bourbon. Typica coffee plants are tall and have a conical shape with branches that grow at a slight slant. It has a rangey, open form. The lateral branches form 50-70° angles with the vertical stem. It has fairly low production and good cup quality. C. Arabica Var. Typica is sometimes expressed as C. Arabica Var. Arabica as a group that contains Typica ... confusing. The issue is that "Typical Arabica" indicates the common form, as well as the original form, so when the Scottish Mission brought arabica from Yemen direct to Kikuyu Kenya from Yemen, that was Typica (with dark bronze tips - new leaf) and when Kona Hawaii was replanted that was Typica from Guatemala, with bronze tips, but over so much time and geography, these two Typicas would hardly be the same. Typica has a host of sub-types, from Blue Mountain to Bergendal, Java Typica to Guatemala Typica. All should have dark tips. Typica was the first coffee in the New World; Java-grown plants were a gift from the Dutch to Louis XIV, were cultivated in Parisian gardens, then thousands of seedlings were sent to the French colony in Martinique in 1720.
Related Terms:
Gesha Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Maragogype Arabica Robusta
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


USDA
USDA is The United States Department of Agriculture, that inspects coffee shipments and sets guidelines for importation. It is also an Indonesian cultivar of Ethiopian heritage that was part of varietal tests in the 1950's.
Related Terms:
Sidikalang Catimor Catuai Caturra Typica Bourbon Varietal Cultivar Bergendal Ateng
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars Trade Terms


Varietal
Varietal is commonly used in wine to indicate Variety of a particular plant material, a type that results in specific flavors. Variety is a low-level taxonomic distinction under Species and Sub Species, and signifies members of different populations can interbreed easily, but not usually such that all traits (appearance attributes) will run true, and in fact usually will blend. In coffee, we prefer to use Cultivar to Varietal or Variety, since it implies the intentional cultivation for organoleptic and production results. The plant chosen as a cultivar may have been bred deliberately, selected from plants in cultivation. On our coffee reviews, we use Varietal category header. Varietal does NOT refer to region ...its about the botanical variety (or cultivar) of the coffee tree. It's not easy information to gather, and has some bearing on the cup but not a lot. Ideally, coffee is grown using old arabica varietals such as Bourbon and Typica, or Kent in India. Controversial varietals such as Ruiri 11 in Kenya and other high-yield, disease resistant hybrids can produce a diminished cup, but growing conditions and processing play a much greater role than the varietal.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Organoleptic
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Villa Sarchi
An arabica cultivar that is a natural dwarf mutation of Bourbon, and in that way is similar to Caturra (as well as Pacas.
Related Terms:
Pacamara Mundo Novo Catuai Catimor Caturra Bourbon Typica Varietal Cultivar Gesha Villa Lobos
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Villalobos
A natural dwarf mutation of Typica, found mostly in Costa Rica.
Related Terms:
Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica Caturra Catuai Catimor Villa Sarchi
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars


Yellow Bourbon
Yellow Bourbon is a sub-type that has fruit which ripens to a yellow color, found mainly in Brazil where it was first grown. Bourbon coffees are named for the island in the India Ocean where French colonists grew it. It is possible that Yellow Bourbon is a natural mutation of a cross between Bourbon and a yellow-fruited Typica called "Amarelo de Botocatu".
Related Terms:
Catimor Caturra Catuai Cultivar Flavor Varietal Origin Flavor Bourbon Typica
Categories:
Biology/Cultivars